你如何确保为你的研究目的选择了正确的神经科学研究工具和提供者? ESOMAR(欧洲舆论与市场研究协会)的一篇文章概述了36个问题,以帮助购买者委托进行神经科学研究.


1. What experience does your company have with providing market research using neuroscience techniques?

The answer to this question might help you form an opinion about the relevant experience of the provider. How many years has the company been providing market research using neuroscience techniques? 他们执行了多少个项目? 有多少参与者/受访者参与其中?

2. What experience/education does your team have with using neuroscience techniques in general? What is their experience with using these techniques for market research purposes?

Use this question to establish 如何 many staff with the relevant academic qualifications this company has. 他们的学历是什么? 他们发表过相关的论文吗? 他们对神经科学的总体经验是什么, 尤其是市场研究方面的神经科学? What is their role within the company – are they primarily involved with R&D,还是他们亲自参与市场调查? Do they have the support of qualified and experienced market research professionals on projects?

3. 贵公司专注于哪些类型的行业.g. 广告、快消品等.)?

Use this question to find out whether the provider has experience in a sector relevant to you. Ask whether any existing clients are willing to provide references/testimonials. Are t在这里 case histories that can be shared, or papers in the public domain?

4. What experience does your company have in providing market research in general?

Again, this question should be answered by number of years and/or number of projects. Note that if this company has been set up solely to provide market research using neuroscience techniques, 那么答案和Q1是一样的. If this is a general market research company which has moved into neuroscience, 那么这家公司的总体经验就是相关的.

5. What experience/education does your team have with market research in general?

Here you should focus on the market research expertise within the company. What market research qualifications and experience do the key personnel working on projects have? 他们从事市场调查有多久了? 是否发表过相关论文或文章? Are they members of ESOMAR or a relevant local market research organisations? 他们遵守什么样的市场研究行为准则?


6. Which neuroscience techniques does your company use for market research? (*See annex for a list of techniques with an explanation of each technique.

生物/神经计量学的进步提供了一系列广泛的测量工具,这些工具正在发展,以关注消费者对营销刺激反应的各个方面. Some of the techniques include EEG, GSR, facial coding, fMRI, eye tracking等. Moreover, t在这里 are differing definitions, depending on the provider, of what is being measured. For example, two companies may offer EEG, but provide different metrics derived from EEG.

这个问题的答案将澄清哪些技术, 提供者打算使用的技术和方法及其原因. 答案应该说明为什么推荐的技术最适合满足给定研究的研究目标.

It should also be noted that neuroscience and neuromarketing research are rapidly evolving. This means that additional techniques and methodologies may emerge over time. 下面的列表并不详尽.

7. What other “traditional” market research techniques, if any, does your company provide

生物/神经计量学是拓展市场洞察力的新工具, but do not necessarily replace all learning provided by traditional research methods such as survey, 定性和行为反应. 有些公司只提供神经营销研究, some provide a combination of traditional and neuromarketing research either directly, 与合作伙伴或通过第三方. The answer to this question will let you know what types of research are available.

8. If you provide both neuroscience and traditional techniques, 当 do you recommend using which

这个问题的答案应该解释神经科学何时能提供客户所寻找的答案, 而传统研究是更好的选择, and 当 a combination of neuroscience and traditional research is called for. The response should help clarify the philosophical perspective of the provider.


9. 你提供了哪些具体的神经科学测量或指标.g. emotional engagement, cognition, memory encoding/recall, comprehension等.)?

The answer should provide a full list of metrics offered by the provider, with a clear definition and explanation of why each metric is important.

请注意:在市场营销用语中常见的术语在神经营销研究中使用时可能具有特定的含义. In addition, the definitions of various terms may differ among neuromarketing research providers (e.g. 契约是一个常用但定义不统一的术语, 不同的研究人员的测量方法也不同). The answer to this question will simplify the comparison of neuromarketing research providers in the market, 帮助防止误解, and reveal instances of differentiation that may inform the client’s decision making. You should encourage a level of response that meets your interests and needs (e.g. 高技术vs. 高层总结).

10. What is the scientific background for the validity of your technology, methods and metrics?

该问题的答案应提供对提供者研究技术的科学依据的解释, 方法和量度. 例如,他们的方法是否经过同行评审和发表? 这样做的时候, 它应该让客户有信心合法地将这三种方法应用于营销研究.

11. Which, if any, of your techniques deal with the measurement of emotion, and to what degree?

The answer to this question will tell you 如何 a provider defines and measures emotions in their research, and what you can expect in terms of deliverables/insights in this area. For example, does one metric serve as an umbrella for the others or do they all haveequal magnitude? 这些技术会显示情绪反应的强度吗? 这些指标是否能显示情绪的整体水平,还是能区分积极情绪和消极情绪? 这些技巧会给你提供详细的情绪吗.g. 区分生气和害怕,高兴和兴奋)? Will the metrics s如何 which specific element(s) of advertising/product elicited an emotional response? 关于情绪反应还有什么其他的见解?

12. Which, if any, of your techniques deal with memory, and to what degree?

这个问题的答案将告诉您提供者是否/如何测量内存,以及应该期望什么类型的交付物/见解:提供者是否会测量记忆性(i.e. 容易被消费者记住)你的广告/产品是? Will the metrics s如何 which elements are likely to be remembered and which are likely to be forgotten? 关于产生召回的其他见解将提供?

13. Which, if any, of your techniques deal with attention, and to what degree

这个问题的答案将显示提供商是否/如何衡量注意力,以及在交付成果/见解方面可以预期什么. Will the provider s如何 如何 much attention consumers pay to an advertisement/product? 哪些元素吸引注意力,哪些元素不被注意? Will the techniques s如何 the reasons why consumers think about the advertisement/product (e.g. 他们是对此感到好奇还是感到困惑?)? 还有什么关于注意力的见解呢?

14. Are metrics available on a moment-to-moment/element-by-element basis, 或者作为一个静态测量, 或两个?

The answer to this question will clarify whether metrics are available as one number for a complete test, 或者每个时刻和/或每个元素的度量是否可用. 这取决于客户端正在查看的内容, 这对电视广告尤其重要, w在这里 it helps to understand a complete reaction to a whole advertisememnt, but it is also important to measure the reaction to each second of it. Can this technique provide one static measurement for comparison across a range of ads? Does the company have a database of ads in different stages for comparison? 公司是否为诊断提供实时测量? 公司如何知道收集到的反馈与受众的创意体验是一致的.g. 输出有滞后吗??


15. 你的技术只能在实验室使用吗? Can it also be used at a respondent’s home, or in cinemas, shops等.?

设备的可移植性因不同的方法而异. T在这里 can be trade-offs between measuring response in natural environments, 在焦点小组设施或实验室里. 在自然环境中(如店内、家中等).),消费者更现实地暴露于营销刺激. 在其他测试地点, researchers can better control the quality of the response data (controlling for distractions/noise, 信号强度等.).

最实用的十大网投需要在消费者体验的真实性和对测量条件的控制之间做出选择. 研究目标应该影响这个决定, 同时与潜在供应商进行讨论.

16. Can your technique be fully integrated into online research data collection using the same respondents?

这有助于理解如何将通过其他市场研究渠道获得的数据与神经科学技术相结合. Some techniques require the use of trained technicians and specialised hardware in a dedicated location. 其他方法可以在家里使用网络摄像头进行, 交付设备或在线课程. 在线生物感官研究技术(如.g. 眼动追踪、面部编码和脑电图)是相对较新的技术.

17. 你给客户推荐的样本量是多少? 这背后的原理是什么? 它被验证了吗??

这个问题的答案将显示供应商是否使用与传统市场调查相同的样本量, or a smaller size (f或两个 qualitative and quantitative research projects). 它将证明提供商是否有足够的证据证明, 尽管样本量较小, 结果是可靠的, 在定量项目的情况下, 总目标的代表.

请注意:大多数神经科学市场研究机构建议定量研究的样本量要比传统市场研究中通常使用的样本量小得多(+/- 15-30 vs. 传统研究100+). 不同的机构对此提出了各种理由, 小样本验证的程度不同. It is important to understand whether the sample size is chosen arbitrarily, 基于一般知识, 或者通过严格的验证过程(例如.g. 对同一研究项目进行多次测试/重新测试, comparison of results obtained among smaller and bigger samples for the same research project).

18. 样本量是否取决于目标消费者的定义?

这个问题的答案将决定你是否应该期望每个研究项目的样本量相同,或者它是否/如何根据同质/多样化的程度而变化, 宽/窄等. 您的目标消费者定义是(e).g. will it be the same for a research project that targets consumers aged 18-25 vs. 18-65岁消费者? 一种性别或两种性别?等.).

19. What do you recommend as a minimum sample size for sub-group analysis?

这个问题的答案将解释是否有必要使用更大的样本量的项目,需要单独的子组分析(如.g. analysing results among total teenagers, but also looking at only male teenagers vs. 只有女性青少年,等等.).


20. Can you confirm the source of the sample that you use for neuroscience market research. 你们样品的主要优点是什么?

The answer to this question will explain whether a provider uses their own dedicated panel, 第三方面板(包括其大小), 作文等.)或另一种寻找受访者的方法. 在在线的情况下3rd party suppliers the ESOMAR 26 Questions can also be a guide to sampling. 了解这个答案将有助于评估样本,并确定达到特定或狭窄的消费者目标和不同地区的容易程度. 这将使比较机构更加容易.

21. 有什么特别的健康吗, demographic or other related restrictions on your sample due to the technique or technology used?

通过列出所有限制, 这个答案将澄清(i)是否可以使用给定的技术访问目标消费者(ii)给定技术使用的样本在一般人群中的代表性如何.

请注意:出于伦理考虑,某些神经科学技术不能用于特定的受访者群体, 健康限制和/或技术限制. For example, certain techniques are not used on pregnant women, left-handed people 等. 至关重要的是要事先了解哪些受访者群体将被排除在样本之外,以确定它是否/如何影响特定研究项目的质量.

22. 退学率和/或合作率是多少?

While a certain level of drop-out is expected 当 recruiting for any research project, very low co-operation rates will limit 如何 representative of the general population a sample is. The answer to this question will allow you to understand if/如何 much higher, 或更低, 将辍学率与传统的市场调查进行比较.

23. 当人们被招募时,他们被告知什么?

提供的奖励类型, level of detail provided on what the measurement process looks like (including any health related questions), 还有任何保密协议的措辞等. can influence the type of people who agree to participate in a research project. 了解这一点将有助于评估样品质量. The response should also explain whether amendments can be made to suit any specific client requirements.

24. 如何验证样品(e).g. 检查)?

The answer to this question will s如何 if a provider conducts any back checks of respondents’ identities, 人口统计学资料, 面试是否真的发生过等. 这将有助于样品质量的评估, 并且可以增强对答案可靠性的信心.


25. 如果有的话,你使用什么显著性检验?

The answer to this question will clarify a provider’s philosophy on significance testing: whether, 当, 如何, 在什么置信水平上, 以及为什么要在结果分析中使用它. 重要的是要了解供应商的观点是否与你公司在定量研究中使用显著性检验的方法相匹配.

26. 使用数据库规范吗? 数据库的大小是多少? 它们包括哪些地区、产品和消费者目标? How do you ensure comparability of data between studies for various clients?

Is a provider able to illustrate the magnitude of obtained scores (are they weak, 平均, 通过将它们与以前测试过的案例进行比较? Can this be done in any location or product category, or for any target consumers?

Please note: Raw scores are useful 当 comparing between two alternative solutions, 因为它们能让你分辨出哪个更强. 然而, 无需与以前的项目进行比较, 很难理解这些结果到底有多强. 为了解决这个问题, 有些机构对以前取得的分数保持健全的数据库,并有程序确保项目之间的可比性. 这样的数据库将提高他们的诊断能力. 然而, since typical scores can differ dramatically between different geographies, 目标消费者或产品类别, 重要的不仅是要了解它的大小, 而且还包括可用数据库的组成,以便判断它们是否与特定的研究项目相关.

27. 是否提供额外的建模分析?

这个问题的答案将显示提供者是否可以建模/预测任何消费者行为/业务指标(例如.g. 购买意向、股权实力、投资回报率等.)使用神经科学指标. 这个问题的答案还将有助于澄清供应商是否能够协助进行更复杂的建模或统计分析, 如果有必要的话.


28. 你们的数据质量控制流程是什么?

The answer to this question will clarify whether a provider has data control processes in place, 这些控制是什么. For example, what procedures are in place to remove corrupt data or unsuitable respondents? Does the company have processes in place to identify sources of error? 如果供应商提供不止一种技术, 对于不同的技术是否有不同的程序等.?

29. What processes are in place to ensure that scientific standards are ad在这里d to during the measurement process? 谁来监督这些过程?

在回答这个问题时, 提供者应该描述标准、验证和策略, 并确定关键的科学人员.

30. What are your processes for interpretation of results, and who oversees these processes?

Do providers have qualified and experienced staff to interpret the results? 他们是否采用了标准的学术实践, 如果是这样的话, 他们能给你参考或指出同行评议的论文来描述合适的解释方法吗?

31. 你在考虑新的方法吗? Ask about parallel testing versus control validating between online and offline methodologies.

32. 如果您提供任何业务措施(例如.g. 预测购买意向、收视率等.),它们是否得到了市场结果的验证?

Provider metrics predicting market behaviour should be validated using market data. Is such validation available for scrutiny or has it been tested against sales uplift? If the latter, providers should supply the client with testimonials.


33. 你如何确保你的技术对受访者是安全的?

Neuromarketing research providers should be able to describe their safety standards, 协议, 同意程序和任何其他证明, and explain 如何 these safety measures are reflected in their testing process.

34. 是否有适当的隐私政策? Is it compliant with all national and regional laws, and market research industry standards?

这个问题的答案确保了神经营销研究提供者对参与者隐私的高标准是透明的. This may make it easier to compare between neuromarketing research providers in market.

35. 如果有的话,你会考虑什么其他的道德因素?

神经营销研究提供者应该能够描述任何其他伦理标准的起源和基础, 协议 and consent procedures they use beyond those outlined in the questions above.

36. 进行研究的年龄范围是什么?你们获得未成年人研究许可的程序是什么?


阅读ESOMAR的完整出版物 在这里.